Numeracy Stage: First Grade (Year 6)

By the time they are finished the first grade, children should be able to:

Number Sense / Place Value

  • count verbally to 120 starting from any number
  • represent a set number of objects with a written number
  • read and write numbers to 120
  • recognize smaller groups of numbers and add them together (2 dots plus 2 dots equals 4 dots) or subtract bigger groups of numbers
  • understand that 2-digit numbers represent amounts of tens and ones
  • determine “how many more / less?” by addition or subtraction in comparison situations
  • compare two different 2-digit numbers using greater than (>), less than (<) or equals (=)

Basic Operations

  • add within 100 (adding a 2-digit number and 1-digit number or adding two 2-digit numbers)
  • find 10 more or 10 less than a given number and be able to explain the reasoning


  • separate circles and rectangles into two or four equal shares
  • describe the whole and parts of a whole
  • understand that separating a whole into more parts will create smaller parts

Algebraic Thinking (Patterns and Relations)

  • represent and solve simple addition and subtraction word problems
  • add and subtract within 20 using various strategies; describe which strategy was used
  • solve addition and subtraction questions where one number is unknown (e.g. 5 + __ = 12)
  • understand the relationship between addition and subtraction
  • make algebraic generalizations, with guidance – such as “any number added to and then subtracted from x, will leave x as the answer”


  • measure lengths by using standard units (without gaps or overlaps)
  • tell time in hours and half-hours using both digital and analog (with a seconds hand) clocks
  • write the time in hours and half-hours
  • compose two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) shapes to create a composite shape  (e.g. putting two triangles together to create a square)

Data Analysis

  • organize, represent and interpret data within up to three categories (e.g. using a bar graph or a tally chart)

Geometry (Shapes) / Spatial Sense

  • distinguish between defining and none-defining attributes of shapes (defining à number of edges, sides or corners; non-defining à colour, size, orientation)