By the time they are finished the first grade, children should be able to:

*Number Sense / Place Value*

- count verbally to 120 starting from any number
- represent a set number of objects with a written number
- read and write numbers to 120
- recognize smaller groups of numbers and add them together (2 dots plus 2 dots equals 4 dots) or subtract bigger groups of numbers
- understand that 2-digit numbers represent amounts of tens and ones
- determine “how many more / less?” by addition or subtraction in comparison situations
- compare two different 2-digit numbers using greater than (>), less than (<) or equals (=)

*Basic Operations*

- add within 100 (adding a 2-digit number and 1-digit number or adding two 2-digit numbers)
- find 10 more or 10 less than a given number and be able to explain the reasoning

*Fractions*

- separate circles and rectangles into two or four equal shares
- describe the whole and parts of a whole
- understand that separating a whole into more parts will create smaller parts

*Algebraic Thinking (Patterns and Relations)*

- represent and solve simple addition and subtraction word problems
- add and subtract within 20 using various strategies; describe which strategy was used
- solve addition and subtraction questions where one number is unknown (e.g. 5 + __ = 12)
- understand the relationship between addition and subtraction
- make algebraic generalizations, with guidance – such as “any number added to and then subtracted from
*x*, will leave*x*as the answer”

*Measurement*

- measure lengths by using standard units (without gaps or overlaps)
- tell time in hours and half-hours using both digital and analog (with a seconds hand) clocks
- write the time in hours and half-hours
- compose two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) shapes to create a composite shape (e.g. putting two triangles together to create a square)

*Data Analysis*

- organize, represent and interpret data within up to three categories (e.g. using a bar graph or a tally chart)

*Geometry (Shapes) / Spatial Sense*

- distinguish between defining and none-defining attributes of shapes (defining à number of edges, sides or corners; non-defining à colour, size, orientation)